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Sermon aboard the Arbella, Hidden History of Maine by Harry Gratwick. The history of the Pine Tree State would be bare but for the contributions of hardy and impassioned individuals—generals, governors, settlers and acti Award-wining historian Edmund Morgan relates the hardships and triumphs of the Puritan movement through this vivid account of its most influential lea An illuminating biography of Anne Bradstreet, the first writer--and the first bestseller--to emerge from the wilderness of the New World. Puritan Anne Anne Hutchinson, a forty-six- year-old midwife who was pregnant with her sixteenth child, stood before forty male judges of the Massachusetts General The Wordy Shipmates by Sarah Vowell.

From the British Library Anne Bradstreet, the first true poet in the American colonies, wrote at a time and in a place where any literary creation was rare and difficult and t Drawing extensively on contemporary records of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, author and antiquarian George Dow provides graphically accurate descripti John Winthrop's effort to create a Puritan "City on a Hill" has had a lasting effect on American values, and many remember this phrase famously quoted United States History. Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The charter took a generous view of the geography involved The charter also expressed an optimistic view of the prospects for finding precious metals The Great Migration Beginning in , Governor John Winthrop , with the company charter tightly in hand, guided the arrival of nearly colonists to the New World.

It is granted, that Pyrrhical or Polemical Saltation: i. Nor is the question, whether a sober and grave Dancing of Men with Men, or of Women with Women, be not allowable; we make no doubt of that, where it may be done without offence, in due season, and with moderation. The Prince of Philosophers has observed truly, that Dancing or Leaping, is a natural expression of joy: So that there is no more Sin in it, than in laughter, or any outward expression of inward Rejoycing.

More Info. Search Here:. Keep In Touch Twitter Facebook. Mary Lyon collected the wherewithal to build the first women's college at My. Holyoke in denominations of ten cents to five dollars.

Thomas Hooker

And Anson G. Phelps took a leading part in founding New York University to grant young men the same opportunity for higher education enjoyed by farmers throughout New England. Although New England colonial colleges trained ministers for the cloth, they were not theological seminaries.


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Less than half the alumni of 17th century Harvard entered the sacred calling. Boys with their master. Folger Library. All students, whether or not candidates for the pulpit took prescribed courses in six of the traditional seven arts — Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy. Latin was supposed to have been mastered in grammar school. Greek and Hebrew were added college courses. Hornbook containing the Lord's Prayer. Only a small portion of the New England people was directly touched by higher education. The total number of college students in the 17th century was less than , of whom graduated.

Andrews writes that grammar. In spite of this, New England took the first steps to establish free public schools, not new to the English-speaking world. In England the best schools were the grarnmar schools which took a boy between the ages of six and eight and taught him Latin Grammar and literature and a little Greek until he was fit to enter Oxford or Cambridge at the age of 14 to These seeds were already sown in England before the Puritan migration. The Puritans did far more than the Anglicans in this regard for elementary education, which was the weak point of English education in At that time a boy's parents had to teach him how to read and write before he was admitted to a grammar school.

This condition of affairs was promptly addressed in the puritan colonies and within thirty years, Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Haven had passed a remarkable series of education acts establishing agencies for education. By several principles of elementary and secondary education had been formulated that became the foundation of the American public school.

The lot of a schoolboy was not easy in the 17th or 18th century, with strong disciplines being meted out by the schoolmaster. Not only were children soundly thrashed for disorderly behavior, but some teachers believed in beating "learning" into their students when they seemed negligent in their lessons. And the notion that school children might choose what they wanted to study would have been regarded as rank heresy and utter nonsense to colonial teachers. Beatings were not the only punishment in elementry schools.

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Parents were expected to help pay for the child's education by supplying firewood. When parents failed in this regard, their children were placed farthest from the fire in the coldest part of the room. A shivering child would be sure to carry the message home that wood was needed. Nobody worried about complexes children might develop from being singled out for this kind of treatment. Grammar school book of Hebrew for the use of Harvard studies. Primer Basic to Education The elementary school, as the name implies, was the first step in the world of the New England child's education.

His book was the primer, probably a hornbook. This was merely a printed alphabet sheet with a few words of one syllable and the Lord's Prayer mounted on a wooden frame with a sheet of horn to protect the surface. These had been used in English schools since time immemorial.

Other books used in elementary schools were a spelling book, a primer and a catachism. The master of one of these in Boston in was Edward Maude. By statute he had to be an M.

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He had to teach grammar, Latin and Greek, reading generously into the classical authors. The Boston Grammar School, which came into existence in , is the only one of whose curriculum we have an exact account. The school, which underwent a name change to Boston Latin School in , is mentioned in a report by Cotton Mather who details a list of the books studied by him during his time as a student in the s. In addition to the free elementary schools were eight "writing schools" in Boston conducted for 2, families in Two were supported by public funds.

Of the six-private writing schools, one was conducted in French for the Huguenots. Of Benjamin Franklin's two years of formal school education, one was spent at the Boston Latin School and the other at one of the "writing schools" conducted by George Brownell.

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This school, in addition to elements of reading, writing and arithmetic, offered a remarkable range of additional subjects which included "Dancing, Violin, Flute. Spinnet, French Quilting and Embroidery". The Boston "writing schools" accounted in great measure for an extraordinary high rate of literacy, although they were no preparatory school for Harvard. As early as , the literacy rate in Massachusetts was 98 percent and in seaports was as high as 99 percent.

Among women the percentage was 62 percent for the same general period, according to historian Samuel Eliot Morison. Bush - June 12, - November 30, The charter took a generous view of the geography involved:. The charter also expressed an optimistic view of the prospects for finding precious metals:. While still in England, the company members signed the Cambridge Agreement , in which they agreed to undertake the rigors of the Atlantic voyage if full authority over the charter and colony would be vested in the members themselves.

Those stockholders who did not wish to migrate sold their shares to emigrants.


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Through this action the Massachusetts Bay venture was transformed from a trading company into an organization dominated by staunch Puritans with a religious agenda. Political power in the new colony was limited to fellow believers, effectively creating a theocracy a government run by religious officials who would enforce religious principles. The Great Migration. Beginning in , Governor John Winthrop , with the company charter tightly in hand, guided the arrival of nearly colonists to the New World.

The initial parties stopped first at Salem, but soon established a permanent settlement on the Shawmut Peninsula of Massachusetts Bay later to be called Boston. Initially, circumstances were extremely difficult - approximately settlers died the first year and a similar number returned to England in the spring of Gradual improvements in living conditions led to an influx of new colonists, mainly English Puritans, that totaled more than 20, over the next decade.

New settlements soon fanned out from Boston — Newtown later Cambridge , Lexington, Concord , Watertown, Charlestown, Dorchester, and others dotted the map. Massachusetts differed markedly from Plymouth, its neighbor 40 miles to the south.

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The Puritan immigrants, as a whole, had been more prominent in England and were more highly educated. All classes, from gentleman to common laborer, were represented. The stamp of Puritanism was felt throughout the entire community. The Puritans of Massachusetts Bay were Calvinists , but with their own points of emphasis. They held the traditional belief that all mankind merited eternal damnation, but a merciful God had graciously granted salvation to a few, the Elect. Failure to do so would result in stern punishment, much as the Biblical Hebrews, an earlier chosen people, had been disciplined.

Settling New England

Good behavior would not win salvation for the Massachusetts Puritans, but it would help them in their current lives to avoid wars, famines, and other forms of divine wrath. This concern about proper behavior resulted in an abiding interest in the activities of one's neighbors. Religious orthodoxy was challenged from time to time by various members of the community.